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Socioeconomic distribution of food outlet availability through online food delivery services in seven European countries: A cross-sectional study.

Published version
Peer-reviewed

Repository DOI


Type

Article

Change log

Authors

Hoenink, Jody C 
Huang, Yuru 
Keeble, Matthew 
Mackenbach, Joreintje D 
Pinho, Maria Gm 

Abstract

This area-level cross-sectional study examined online food outlet availability through the most popular online food delivery service platforms (OFDS) across seven European countries, and explored how this online food outlet availability was socioeconomically distributed. Data collection of online food outlet availability was automated in England, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland. We used a geographic information system to join online food outlet availability to socio-demographic information. Median number of food outlets delivering through OFDS was highest in England and lowest in Italy, Portugal and Spain. We also found that high-income areas have the greatest online food outlet availability in most countries. In England, areas with a middle income had the least online food outlets available and no income data was available for Switzerland. Further work is needed to understand drivers of disparities in online food outlet availability, as well as possible implications for public health.

Description

Keywords

Fast food, Food environment, Food outlet access, Food outlet exposure, GIS, Public health, SEP, Humans, Cross-Sectional Studies, Fast Foods, Income, England, Europe, Residence Characteristics, Food Supply

Journal Title

Health Place

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

1353-8292
1873-2054

Volume Title

84

Publisher

Elsevier BV
Sponsorship
MRC (MC_UU_00006/7)