A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between cyproterone acetate and intracranial meningiomas.
The influence of exposure to hormonal treatments, particularly cyproterone acetate (CPA), has been posited to contribute to the growth of meningiomas. Given the widespread use of CPA, this systematic review and meta-analysis attempted to assess real-world evidence of the association between CPA and the occurrence of intracranial meningiomas. Systematic searches of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Controlled Register of Controlled Trials, were performed from database inception to 18th December 2021. Four retrospective observational studies reporting 8,132,348 patients were included in the meta-analysis. There was a total of 165,988 subjects with usage of CPA. The age of patients at meningioma diagnosis was generally above 45 years in all studies. The dosage of CPA taken by the exposed group (n = 165,988) was specified in three of the four included studies. All studies that analyzed high versus low dose CPA found a significant association between high dose CPA usage and increased risk of meningioma. When high and low dose patients were grouped together, there was no statistically significant increase in risk of meningioma associated with use of CPA (RR = 3.78 [95% CI 0.31-46.39], p = 0.190). Usage of CPA is associated with increased risk of meningioma at high doses but not when low doses are also included. Routine screening and meningioma surveillance by brain MRI offered to patients prescribed with CPA is likely a reasonable clinical consideration if given at high doses for long periods of time. Our findings highlight the need for further research on this topic.