The Pathogenesis and Long-Term Consequences of COVID-19 Cardiac Injury.

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Siripanthong, Bhurint 
Hanff, Thomas C 
Khanji, Mohammed Y 

The mechanisms of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-related myocardial injury comprise both direct viral invasion and indirect (hypercoagulability and immune-mediated) cellular injuries. Some patients with COVID-19 cardiac involvement have poor clinical outcomes, with preliminary data suggesting long-term structural and functional changes. These include persistent myocardial fibrosis, edema, and intraventricular thrombi with embolic events, while functionally, the left ventricle is enlarged, with a reduced ejection fraction and new-onset arrhythmias reported in a number of patients. Myocarditis post-COVID-19 vaccination is rare but more common among young male patients. Larger studies, including prospective data from biobanks, will be useful in expanding these early findings and determining their validity.

CMR, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, COVID-19, COVID-19, coronavirus disease-2019, CT, Computerized Tomography, LGE, late gadolinium enhancement, MI, myocardial infarction, SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, athlete, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, inflammation, myocardial injury, myocarditis, sudden cardiac death, troponin
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JACC Basic Transl Sci
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Elsevier BV