Association between Cerebrovascular Reactivity Monitoring and Mortality Is Preserved When Adjusting for Baseline Admission Characteristics in Adult Traumatic Brain Injury: A CENTER-TBI Study.
Cerebral autoregulation, as measured using the pressure reactivity index (PRx), has been related to global patient outcome in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, this has been documented without accounting for standard baseline admission characteristics and intracranial pressure (ICP). We evaluated this association, adjusting for baseline admission characteristics and ICP, in a multi-center, prospective cohort. We derived PRx as the correlation between ICP and mean arterial pressure in prospectively collected multi-center data from the High-Resolution Intensive Care Unit (ICU) cohort of the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI) study. Multi-variable logistic regression models were analyzed to assess the association between global outcome (measured as either mortality or dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended [GOSE]) and a range of covariates (IMPACT [International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials] Core and computed tomography [CT] variables, ICP, and PRx). Performance of these models in outcome association was compared using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) and Nagelkerke's pseudo-R2. One hundred ninety-three patients had a complete data set for analysis. The addition of percent time above threshold for PRx improved AUC and displayed statistically significant increases in Nagelkerke's pseudo-R2 over the IMPACT Core and IMPACT Core + CT models for mortality. The addition of PRx monitoring to IMPACT Core ± CT + ICP models accounted for additional variance in mortality, when compared to models with IMPACT Core ± CT + ICP alone. The addition of cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring, through PRx, provides a statistically significant increase in association with mortality at 6 months. Our data suggest that cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring may provide complementary information regarding outcomes in TBI.