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Treatment Emergent Dolutegravir Resistance Mutations in Individuals Naïve to HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors: A Rapid Scoping Review.

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Tao, Kaiming 
Chu, Carolyn 
Avalos, Ava 
Ahluwalia, Amrit K 


Background: Dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) rarely leads to virological failure (VF) and drug resistance in integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-naïve persons living with HIV (PLWH). As a result, limited data are available on INSTI-associated drug resistance mutations (DRMs) selected by DTG-containing ART regimens. Methods: We reviewed studies published through July 2023 to identify those reporting emergent major INSTI-associated DRMs in INSTI-naïve PLWH receiving DTG and those containing in vitro DTG susceptibility results using a standardized assay. Results: We identified 36 publications reporting 99 PLWH in whom major nonpolymorphic INSTI-associated DRMs developed on a DTG-containing regimen and 21 publications containing 269 in vitro DTG susceptibility results. DTG-selected DRMs clustered into four largely non-overlapping mutational pathways characterized by mutations at four signature positions: R263K, G118R, N155H, and Q148H/R/K. Eighty-two (82.8%) viruses contained just one signature DRM, including R263K (n = 40), G118R (n = 24), N155H (n = 9), and Q148H/R/K (n = 9). Nine (9.1%) contained ≥1 signature DRM, and eight (8.1%) contained just other DRMs. R263K and G118R were negatively associated with one another and with N155H and Q148H/K/R. R263K alone conferred a median 2.0-fold (IQR: 1.8-2.2) reduction in DTG susceptibility. G118R alone conferred a median 18.8-fold (IQR:14.2-23.4) reduction in DTG susceptibility. N155H alone conferred a median 1.4-fold (IQR: 1.2-1.6) reduction in DTG susceptibility. Q148H/R/K alone conferred a median 0.8-fold (IQR: 0.7-1.1) reduction in DTG susceptibility. Considerably higher levels of reduced susceptibility often occurred when signature DRMs occurred with additional INSTI-associated DRMs. Conclusions: Among INSTI-naïve PLWH with VF and treatment emergent INSTI-associated DRMs, most developed one of four signature DRMs, most commonly R263K or G118R. G118R was associated with a much greater reduction in DTG susceptibility than R263K.



Dolutegravir, HIV-1 integrase, antiviral resistance, mutations, Humans, HIV Integrase Inhibitors, HIV-1, Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring, Mutation

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