Technology in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus - current status and future prospects.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) represents 5-10% of diabetes cases worldwide. The incidence of T1DM is increasing, and there is no immediate prospect of a cure. As such, lifelong management is required, the burden of which is being eased by novel treatment modalities, particularly from the field of diabetes technologies. Continuous glucose monitoring has become the standard of care and includes factory-calibrated subcutaneous glucose monitoring and long-term implantable glucose sensing. In addition, considerable progress has been made in technology-enabled glucose-responsive insulin delivery. The first hybrid insulin-only closed-loop system has been commercialized, and other closed-loop systems are under development, including dual-hormone glucose control systems. This Review focuses on well-established diabetes technologies, including glucose sensing, pen-based insulin delivery, data management and data analytics. We also cover insulin pump therapy, threshold-based suspend, predictive low-glucose suspend and single-hormone and dual-hormone closed-loop systems. Clinical practice recommendations for insulin pump therapy and continuous glucose monitoring are presented, and ongoing research and future prospects are highlighted. We conclude that the management of T1DM is improved by diabetes technology for the benefit of the majority of people with T1DM, their caregivers and guardians and health-care professionals treating patients with T1DM.