Proteome Mapping of a Cyanobacterium Reveals Distinct Compartment Organization and Cell-Dispersed Metabolism.
Cyanobacteria are complex prokaryotes, incorporating a Gram-negative cell wall and internal thylakoid membranes (TMs). However, localization of proteins within cyanobacterial cells is poorly understood. Using subcellular fractionation and quantitative proteomics, we produced an extensive subcellular proteome map of an entire cyanobacterial cell, identifying ∼67% of proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, ∼1000 more than previous studies. Assigned to six specific subcellular regions were 1,712 proteins. Proteins involved in energy conversion localized to TMs. The majority of transporters, with the exception of a TM-localized copper importer, resided in the plasma membrane (PM). Most metabolic enzymes were soluble, although numerous pathways terminated in the TM (notably those involved in peptidoglycan monomer, NADP+, heme, lipid, and carotenoid biosynthesis) or PM (specifically, those catalyzing lipopolysaccharide, molybdopterin, FAD, and phylloquinol biosynthesis). We also identified the proteins involved in the TM and PM electron transport chains. The majority of ribosomal proteins and enzymes synthesizing the storage compound polyhydroxybuyrate formed distinct clusters within the data, suggesting similar subcellular distributions to one another, as expected for proteins operating within multicomponent structures. Moreover, heterogeneity within membrane regions was observed, indicating further cellular complexity. Cyanobacterial TM protein localization was conserved in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) chloroplasts, suggesting similar proteome organization in more developed photosynthetic organisms. Successful application of this technique in Synechocystis suggests it could be applied to mapping the proteomes of other cyanobacteria and single-celled organisms. The organization of the cyanobacterial cell revealed here substantially aids our understanding of these environmentally and biotechnologically important organisms.
Wellcome Trust (110170/Z/15/Z)
Environmental Services Association Education Trust (ESAET) (ESAET Cambridge 3)
Wellcome Trust (110071/Z/15/Z)