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Immune checkpoint inhibitors in resectable gastroesophageal cancers - a review.

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Mukherjee, Sarbajit 
Parmar, Kanak 
Smyth, Elizabeth 


Gastroesophageal cancers (GEC) have a poor survival rate of 20-30% at 5 years, often due to delayed presentations. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery or peri-operative chemotherapy and surgery are widely used as the standard of care for patients with resectable GEC. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved survival in metastatic and recurrent GEC which led to their application in resectable GEC. Based on the pivotal CheckMate 577 study results, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved nivolumab for patients with completely resected high-risk esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer (GEJC). Several ongoing trials with many ICIs could potentially improve resectable GEC outcomes. This review explores the rationale for using ICIs in resectable GEC and discusses the significance of reported clinical trials. Finally, we will examine some ongoing clinical trials and the challenges as well as prospects of ICIs in resectable GEC.


Peer reviewed: True


adjuvant, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, immunotherapy, neo-adjuvant, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, peri-operative, resectable

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Ther Adv Med Oncol

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SAGE Publications