A review of the clinical utility of serum S100B protein levels in the assessment of traumatic brain injury.
BACKGROUND: In order to improve injury assessment of brain injuries, protein markers of pathophysiological processes and tissue fate have been introduced in the clinic. The most studied protein "biomarker" of cerebral damage in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the protein S100B. The aim of this narrative review is to thoroughly analyze the properties and capabilities of this biomarker with focus on clinical utility in the assessment of patients suffering from TBI. RESULTS: S100B has successfully been implemented in the clinic regionally (1) to screen mild TBI patients evaluating the need to perform a head computerized tomography, (2) to predict outcome in moderate-to-severe TBI patients, (3) to detect secondary injury development in brain-injured patients and (4) to evaluate treatment efficacy. The potential opportunities and pitfalls of S100B in the different areas usually refer to its specificity and sensitivity to detect and assess intracranial injury. CONCLUSION: Given some shortcomings that should be realized, S100B can be used as a versatile screening, monitoring and prediction tool in the management of TBI patients.