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A dynamic model for current-based nozzle condition monitoring in fused deposition modelling

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Tlegenov, Yedige 
Lu, Wen Feng 
Hong, Geok Soon 


Abstract: 3D printing and particularly fused deposition modelling (FDM) is widely used for prototyping and fabricating low-cost customised parts. However, present fused deposition modelling 3D printers have limited nozzle condition monitoring techniques to minimize nozzle clogging errors. Nozzle clogging is one of the significant process errors in fused deposition modelling 3D printers, and it affects the quality of prototyped parts in terms of mechanical properties and geometrical accuracy. This paper proposes a dynamic model for current-based nozzle condition monitoring in fused deposition modelling, which is briefly described as follows. First, all the process forces in filament extrusion of the fused deposition modelling were identified and derived theoretically, and theoretical equations of the feed rolling forces and flow-through-nozzle forces were derived. In addition, the effect of the nozzle clogging on the current of extruding motor were identified. Second, based on the proposed dynamic model, current-based nozzle condition monitoring method was proposed. Next, sets of experiments on FDM machine using polylactic acid (PLA) material were carried out to verify the proposed theoretical model, and the results were analysed and evaluated. Findings of the present study indicate that nozzle clogging in FDM 3D printing can be monitored by sensing the current of the filament extruding motor. The proposed model can be used efficiently for monitoring nozzle clogging conditions in fused deposition modelling 3D printers as it is based on the fundamental process modelling.



Full Research Article, 3D printing, Fused deposition modelling, Fused filament fabrication, Condition monitoring, Nozzle clogging

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Progress in Additive Manufacturing

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Springer International Publishing