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Roadmap on energy harvesting materials

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Pecunia, Vincenzo; orcid: 0000-0003-3244-1620; email: 
Silva, S Ravi P; orcid: 0000-0002-0356-1319; email: 
Phillips, Jamie D; orcid: 0000-0003-2642-3717 
Artegiani, Elisa; orcid: 0000-0001-8821-4545 
Romeo, Alessandro; orcid: 0000-0001-5068-8788 


Ambient energy harvesting has great potential to contribute to sustainable development and address growing environmental challenges. Converting waste energy from energy-intensive processes and systems (e.g. combustion engines and furnaces) is crucial to reducing their environmental impact and achieving net-zero emissions. Compact energy harvesters will also be key to powering the exponentially growing smart devices ecosystem that is part of the Internet of Things, thus enabling futuristic applications that can improve our quality of life (e.g. smart homes, smart cities, smart manufacturing, and smart healthcare). To achieve these goals, innovative materials are needed to efficiently convert ambient energy into electricity through various physical mechanisms, such as the photovoltaic effect, thermoelectricity, piezoelectricity, triboelectricity, and radiofrequency wireless power transfer. By bringing together the perspectives of experts in various types of energy harvesting materials, this Roadmap provides extensive insights into recent advances and present challenges in the field. Additionally, the Roadmap analyses the key performance metrics of these technologies in relation to their ultimate energy conversion limits. Building on these insights, the Roadmap outlines promising directions for future research to fully harness the potential of energy harvesting materials for green energy anytime, anywhere.


Funder: Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia

Funder: BIDEKO Project

Funder: MCIN/AEI

Funder: Spanish State Research Agency (AEI)

Funder: Basic Science Research Program

Funder: Ministry of Education; doi:

Funder: Swedish Knowledge Foundation

Funder: University of Calgary; doi:

Funder: National Renewable Energy Laboratory; doi:

Funder: Fonds de recherche du Québec – Nature et technologies; doi:

Funder: Canada Research Chairs program

Funder: EU

Funder: National Research Foundation of Korea; doi:

Funder: NRF

Funder: Priority Research Centers Program

Funder: European regional development fund (ERDF)

Funder: European Research Council (ERC)

Funder: ERC

Funder: Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Funder: MIUR

Funder: Italian Ministry

Funder: the Cardiff University, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

Funder: JST Mirai Program

Funder: Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)

Funder: A*STAR

Funder: JST

Funder: PRESTO

Funder: Aerospace Programme

Funder: EB

Funder: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Funder: Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD)

Funder: Sandia, LLC

Funder: the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

Funder: United States Government

Funder: Honeywell International Inc.

Funder: The Leverhulme Trust

Funder: Royal Academy of Engineering; doi:

Funder: Office of the Chief Science Adviser for National Security

Funder: Henry Samueli School of Engineering & Applied Science

Funder: Department of Bioengineering at the University of California, Los Angeles

Funder: CREST

Funder: Beijing Forestry University; doi:

Funder: Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)

Funder: the Australian Research Council, QUT

Funder: Center for Hierarchical Materials Design

Funder: Austrian Christian Doppler Laboratory for Thermoelectricity

Funder: HBIS-UQ Innovation Centre for Sustainable Steel


piezoelectric energy harvesting, triboelectric energy harvesting, radiofrequency energy harvesting, sustainability, photovoltaics, thermoelectric energy harvesting, energy harvesting materials

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Journal of Physics: Materials

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IOP Publishing
Strategic Project (SFRH/BPD/110914/2015, UID/FIS/04650/2021)
Free State of Saxony (100206218, 100347675)
European Regional Development Fund (ERFD) (501100011033, PID2019-106099RB-C43/AEI/10.13039)
University of Bath (2021YFA1201603)
EPSRC (EP/V035819/1, EP/V039717/1)
CUP (B39J21025850001)
Royal Society of Chemistry (E21-9668828170)
Luxembourg National Fund (FNR) (INTER/ANR/18/12618689/HARVESTORE/Defay)
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2018R1A6A1A03024334)
Korea government (2022R1A2C2007219)
UNIFY (101039110)
Simon Fraser University (FRG 12-27)
Royal Society (UF140372, URF/R/201013)
MSCA (101028536)
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (DE-AC36-08GO28308, DE-AR0001215)
China Scholarship Council (202004910288)
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-20-1-0157)
National Science Foundation of China (51772016, 52172211, 61888102, 62171004)
NSF (DMR-2001156)
the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering (DE-SC0022288)
Jiangsu Specially-Appointed Professor Program (BK20210556)
Basic Science Center Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (51788104)
JSPS (19H02536)
Advanced Manufacturing (RIE2020)
MASSCOTE (ANR-15-CE05-0027)
BCS (MR/S031952/1)
U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-05CH11231)
Innovate UK (51868)
National Nuclear Security Administration (DE-NA-0003525)
German Research Foundation (DFG) (273177991, 391996624, 407080863)
UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship (MR/V024442/1)
European Union (101006963, 863337, 881603, 952792)
Key R&D Program of China (2019YFC1905901)
Ministry of Education (MOE) (RT15/20)
Outstanding Young Talent Cultivation Project (2019JQ03014)
Korean government (MSIP) (2018R1A6A1A03025708)
EP (S02106X/1)
Key Research Project of Zhejiang (LD22E030007)
DOE (70NANB19H005, DE-AC02-76SF00515)