Resolving the immune landscape of human prostate at a single-cell level in health and cancer.

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Tuong, Zewen Kelvin 
Loudon, Kevin W 
Berry, Brendan 
Richoz, Nathan 
Jones, Julia 

The prostate gland produces prostatic fluid, high in zinc and citrate and essential for the maintenance of spermatozoa. Prostate cancer is a common condition with limited treatment efficacy in castration-resistant metastatic disease, including with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Using single-cell RNA-sequencing to perform an unbiased assessment of the cellular landscape of human prostate, we identify a subset of tumor-enriched androgen receptor-negative luminal epithelial cells with increased expression of cancer-associated genes. We also find a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells in normal prostate that were transcriptionally perturbed in prostate cancer. An exception is a prostate-specific, zinc transporter-expressing macrophage population (MAC-MT) that contributes to tissue zinc accumulation in homeostasis but shows enhanced inflammatory gene expression in tumors, including T cell-recruiting chemokines. Remarkably, enrichment of the MAC-MT signature in cancer biopsies is associated with improved disease-free survival, suggesting beneficial antitumor functions.

human prostate, immune landscape, macrophage, prostate cancer, single-cell RNA sequencing, zinc, Aged, Animals, Epithelial Cells, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, Macrophages, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Middle Aged, Prostate, Prostatic Neoplasms, RNA-Seq, Receptors, Androgen, Single-Cell Analysis, Transcriptome, Zinc
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Elsevier BV
Cancer Research UK (C96/A25177)
Arthritis Research UK (21777)
Kidney Research UK (TF_013_20171124)
Medical Research Council (MR/S035842/1)
Wellcome Trust (106809/Z/15/Z)
National Institute for Health and Care Research (IS-BRC-1215-20014)
Z.K.T. and M.R.C. are supported by a Medical Research Council Human Cell Atlas Research Grant (MR/S035842/1), K.W.L is supported by a Kidney Research UK Clinical Training Fellowship (TF_013_20171124), N.R. was supported by a Wellcome Fellowship (106809/Z/15/Z), M.R.C. is supported by a Versus Arthritis Cure Challenge Research Grant (21777), and an NIHR Research Professorship (RP-2017-08-ST2-002). AYW is supported by the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Centre (C9685/A25177) and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre (BRC-1215-20014). Z.K.T. holds an honorary research fellow appointment with The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute. We are grateful for infrastructure support from the Cambridge NIHR Biomedical Campus and Cancer Research UK Cambridge Centre. The NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) is a partnership between Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Cambridge, funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR).