Out of Asia: the independent rise and global spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella.
Shigella are ranked among the most prevalent aetiologies of diarrhoeal disease worldwide, disproportionately affecting young children in developing countries and high-risk communities in developed settings. Antimicrobial treatment, most commonly with fluoroquinolones, is currently recommended for Shigella infections to alleviate symptoms and control disease transmission. Resistance to fluoroquinolones has emerged in differing Shigella species (S. dysenteriae, flexneri and sonnei) since the turn of the 21st century, originating in endemic areas, and latterly spreading into non-endemic regions. Despite occurring independently, the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in these different Shigella species shares striking similarities regarding their epidemiology and resistance mechanisms. Here, we review and discuss the current epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella species, particularly in the light of recent genomic insights.