Regulation of adipogenic differentiation and adipose tissue inflammation by interferon regulatory factor 3
Abstract: Dysfunction of adipocytes and adipose tissue is a primary defect in obesity and obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) has been implicated in adipogenesis. However, the role of IRF3 in obesity and obesity-associated disorders remains unclear. Here, we show that IRF3 expression in human adipose tissues is positively associated with insulin sensitivity and negatively associated with type 2 diabetes. In mouse pre-adipocytes, deficiency of IRF3 results in increased expression of PPARγ and PPARγ-mediated adipogenic genes, leading to increased adipogenesis and altered adipocyte functionality. The IRF3 knockout (KO) mice develop obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and eventually type 2 diabetes with aging, which is associated with the development of white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation. Increased macrophage accumulation with M1 phenotype which is due to the loss of IFNβ-mediated IL-10 expression is observed in WAT of the KO mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Bone-marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrate that the nonhematopoietic cells are the primary contributors to the development of obesity and both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells contribute to the development of obesity-related complications in IRF3 KO mice. This study demonstrates that IRF3 regulates the biology of multiple cell types including adipocytes and macrophages to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-related complications and hence, could be a potential target for therapeutic interventions for the prevention and treatment of obesity-associated metabolic disorders.