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A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of community and population interventions to reduce the modifiable risk factors for dementia.

Published version
Peer-reviewed

Type

Article

Change log

Authors

Walsh, Sebastian 
Brain, Jacob 
Mukadam, Naaheed 
Anderson, Robert 
Greene, Leanne 

Abstract

Dementia is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that tackling modifiable lifecourse risk factors could prevent or delay a significant proportion of cases. Population- and community-based approaches change societal conditions such that everyone across a given community is more likely to live more healthily. We systematically reviewed economic studies of population- and community-based interventions to reduce modifiable lifecourse risk factors for dementia. We searched Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Scopus, Econlit, ERIC, the British Education Index, and Google, on 03/03/2022. We included cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-utility studies, provided that the direct outcome of the intervention was a modifiable risk factor for dementia, and was measured empirically. Quality appraisal was completed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria checklist. A narrative synthesis was performed. We included 45 studies, from 22,749 records identified. Included studies targeted smoking (n = 15), education (n = 10), physical inactivity (n = 9), obesity (n = 5), air pollution (n = 2), traumatic brain injury (n = 1), and multiple risk factors (n = 3). Intervention designs included changing the physical/food environment (n = 13), mass media programmes (n = 11), reducing financial barriers or increasing resources (n = 10), whole-community approaches (n = 6), and legislative change (n = 3). Overall, interventions were highly cost-effective and/or cost-saving, particularly those targeting smoking, educational attainment, and physical inactivity. Effects were observed in high- (e.g. USA and UK) and low- and middle-income (e.g. Mexico, Tanzania, Thailand) countries. Further research into the direct effects of targeting these risk factors on future dementia prevalence will have important economic, social and policy implications.

Description

Keywords

Cost-effectiveness, Dementia, Population interventions, Prevention, Humans, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Risk Factors, Obesity, Health Promotion, Dementia

Journal Title

Maturitas

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

0378-5122
1873-4111

Volume Title

Publisher

Elsevier BV
Sponsorship
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NIHR302276)