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Role of Environmental Factors in Shaping Spatial Distribution of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Fiji.

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de Alwis, Ruklanthi 
Watson, Conall 
Nikolay, Birgit 
Lowry, John H 
Thieu, Nga Tran Vu 


Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1.26/quintile increase, 95% CI 1.12-1.42), and decreased with increased distance from major rivers and creeks (OR 0.89/km increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99) and distance to modeled flood-risk areas (OR 0.80/quintile increase, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) after being adjusted for age, typhoid fever vaccination, and home toilet type. Risk for exposure to Salmonella Typhi and its spatial distribution in Fiji are driven by environmental factors. Our findings can directly affect typhoid fever control efforts in Fiji.



Fiji, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Vi antibodies, Vi capsular antigen, bacteria, environmental factors, flooding, multilevel analysis, risk factors, seroprevalence, typhoid fever, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Antibodies, Bacterial, Child, Child, Preschool, Cluster Analysis, Cross-Sectional Studies, Environmental Microbiology, Fiji, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Middle Aged, Peptides, Cyclic, Risk Factors, Salmonella typhi, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Typhoid Fever

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Emerg Infect Dis

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
This study was supported by the World Health Organization, Division of Pacific Technical Support (grant 2013/334890-0); the Chadwick Trust; the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (grant OPP1033751); and the Wellcome Trust of Great Britain (grant 100087/Z/12/Z).