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The value of the follow-through derives from motor learning depending on future actions.

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Howard, Ian S 
Wolpert, Daniel M 
Franklin, David W 


In ball sports, we are taught to follow through, despite the inability of events after contact or release to influence the outcome [1, 2]. Here we show that the specific motor memory active at any given moment critically depends on the movement that will be made in the near future. We demonstrate that associating a different follow-through movement with two motor skills that normally interfere [3-7] allows them to be learned simultaneously, suggesting that distinct future actions activate separate motor memories. This implies that when learning a skill, a variable follow-through would activate multiple motor memories across practice, whereas a consistent follow-through would activate a single motor memory, resulting in faster learning. We confirm this prediction and show that such follow-through effects influence adaptation over time periods associated with real-world skill learning. Overall, our results indicate that movements made in the immediate future influence the current active motor memory. This suggests that there is a critical time period both before [8] and after the current movement that determines motor memory activation and controls learning.



Analysis of Variance, Association Learning, Games, Experimental, Humans, Models, Psychological, Motor Skills, Psychomotor Performance, Time Factors

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Curr Biol

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Elsevier BV
Wellcome Trust (097803/Z/11/Z)