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An expert Delphi consensus for the characteristics of an ideal clozapine-specific side effect scale

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Bernardo, M 


This study employed the Delphi method to identify the ideal characteristics of a clozapine adverse drug reaction (ADR) scale, engaging 34 clozapine specialists at the 6th NEMEA meeting. Participants emphasized the integration of clinician-rated (CROM) and patient-rated (PROM) outcomes in the scale, aiming for a balance between comprehensiveness and practicality. Key consensus points included the inclusion of specific ADRs like somnolence, sialorrhea, and compulsivity, while metabolic complications were considered less relevant. This research highlights the need for a practical, patient-inclusive tool for monitoring clozapine ADRs, reflective of both clinical expertise and patient experiences in managing treatment-resistant schizophrenia.



5202 Biological Psychology, 3214 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 32 Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, 52 Psychology, Clinical Research, Mental Health, Brain Disorders, Mental Illness, Schizophrenia, Patient Safety

Journal Title

European Journal of Psychiatry

Conference Name

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Volume Title


Elsevier BV
MRC (MR/W029987/1)
Medical Research Council (MR/W029987/1)
MB has been a consultant, has received grants/research support and/or honoraria from, and/or has been a speaker/advisor for ABBiotics, Adamed, Angelini, Casen Recordati, Janssen-Cilag, Menarini, Rovi, and Takeda. EFE has received consultancy honoraria from Boehringer-Ingelheim (2022), Atheneum (2018-2022), ROVI (2022-23), Viatris (2024) and ADAMED (2022-2024), received training and research material from Merz (2020) and is director of a private practice company ( EFE has received research funding from MRC/NIHR (2021 Clinician Academic Research Partnership MR/W029987/1), Cambridge BRC and NIHR-HTA.