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Evaluating the potential impact of lifestyle-based behavior change interventions delivered at the time of colorectal cancer screening.

Published version
Peer-reviewed

Repository DOI


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Authors

Geller, Greta 
Xu, Diane 
Taylor, Lily 
Griffin, Simon 

Abstract

PURPOSE: To analyze interventions implemented at the time of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, or among individuals who have previously undergone investigation for CRC, focused on reducing CRC risk through promotion of lifestyle behavior change. Additionally, this review evaluated to what extent such interventions apply behavior change techniques (BCTs) to achieve their objectives. METHODS: Five databases were systematically searched to identify randomized control trials seeking to reduce CRC risk through behavior change. Outcomes were changes in health-related lifestyle behaviors associated with CRC risk, including changes in dietary habits, body mass index, smoking behaviors, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random effects models. BCT's were coded from a published taxonomy of 93 techniques. RESULTS: Ten RCT's met the inclusion criteria. Greater increase in fruit/vegetable consumption in the intervention group were observed with respect to the control (SMD 0.13, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.18; p < 0.001). Across fiber, alcohol, fat, red meat, and multivitamin consumption, and smoking behaviors, similar positive outcomes were observed (SMD 0.09-0.57 for all, p < 0.01). However, among physical activity and body mass index, no difference between the intervention groups compared with controls were observed. A median of 7.5 BCTs were applied across included interventions. CONCLUSION: While magnitude of the observed effect sizes varied, they correspond to potentially important changes in lifestyle behaviors when considered on a population scale. Future interventions should identify avenues to maximize long-term engagement to promote sustained lifestyle behavior change.

Description

Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Stephen Sharp from the University of Cambridge MRC Epidemiology Unit for his contribution to the statistical methods applied in this work, and Isla Kuhn from the University of Cambridge Medical Library for her contribution to our database search strategy.

Keywords

Behavior change, Behavior change techniques, Colorectal cancer, Lifestyle behaviors, Screening, Humans, Early Detection of Cancer, Life Style, Health Behavior, Fruit, Colorectal Neoplasms

Journal Title

Cancer Causes Control

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

0957-5243
1573-7225

Volume Title

35

Publisher

Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Sponsorship
MRC (MC_UU_00006/6)
This work was supported, in whole or part, by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation [OPP1144]. Under the grand conditions of the Foundation, a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Generic License has already been assigned to the Author Accepted Manuscript version that might arise from this submission.