Repository logo

Graphene actively Q-switched lasers

Accepted version



Change log


Li, D 
Xue, H 
Qi, M 
Wang, Y 
Aksimsek, S 


Graphene electro-optic modulators (GEOMs) are emerging as a viable alternative to conventional material-based modulators mainly due to their broadband and ultrafast performance. These GEOMs with combined advantages of small footprint and low energy consumption can potentially enable various high-performance applications that are not possible using conventional approaches. Here, we report the first actively Q-switched lasers with a GEOM. In contrast to the previously reported lasers that are passively modulated by two-dimensional layered material-based saturable absorbers, our actively modulated laser concept represents significant advantages, such as electrically tunable output parameters (e.g. output repetition rate, pulse duration and pulse energy) and electro-optical synchronization. Using a single GEOM, we generate broadband Q-switched pulses at 1.55 and 2μm with output energies of up to 123 nJ. This indicates the broadband pulse generation capability of the graphene-based active devices, superior to widely used bulk material-based active modulation approaches. Our results demonstrate a simple and viable design towards broadband, high-repetition-rate, electrically modulated ultrafast lasers for various applications, such as telecommunications and spectroscopy.



graphene, electro-optic modulators, fiber lasers, active Q-switching

Journal Title

2D Materials

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



IOP Publishing
Royal Academy of Engineering (RAEng) (10216/105)
European Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) (696656)
The authors acknowledge funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (REA grant agreement No. 631610), EU Graphene Flagship (No. 696656), Academy of Finland (No. 276376, 284548, 295777, 304666), China Scholarship Council (CSC), Nokia foundation,the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), International Science and Technology Cooperation Project (No. 2014DFR10780), the Foundation of the Education Committee of Shaanxi Province (No. 14JK1756, China), the Science Foundation of Northwest University (No. 13NW14), Northwest University Cross-discipline Fund for Postgraduate Students (YZZ13027), and the financial support from Centre for International Mobility (CIMO) under the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture. ZS and FY acknowledge Funding from the State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. TH acknowledges funding from RAEng through a research fellowship (Graphex). We also acknowledge the provision of technical facilities of the Micronova, Nanofabrication Centre of Aalto University.