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Infectiousness of places - Impact of multiscale human activity places in the transmission of COVID-19.

Published version
Peer-reviewed

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Authors

Zhang, Zhu 
Zhang, Weiyi 
Zhuang, Shengsheng 

Abstract

COVID-19 raises attention to epidemic transmission in various places. This study analyzes the transmission risks associated with human activity places at multiple scales, including different types of settlements and eleven types of specific establishments (restaurants, bars, etc.), using COVID-19 data in 906 urban areas across four continents. Through a difference-in-difference approach, we identify the causal effects of activities at various places on epidemic transmission. We find that at the micro-scale, though the transmission risks at different establishments differ across countries, sports, entertainment, and catering establishments are generally more infectious. At the macro-scale, contradicting common beliefs, it is consistent across countries that transmission does not increase with settlement size and density. It is also consistent that specific establishments play a lesser role in transmission in larger settlements, suggesting more transmission happening elsewhere. These findings contribute to building a system of knowledge on the linkage between places, human activities, and disease transmission.

Description

Funder: Beijing Social Science Foundation 20GLA003 Tsinghua University Spring Breeze Fund 2021Z99CFY038 Institute of Public Governance of Peking University YQZX202005, TDXM202104

Keywords

Economics, Geography, Risk factors

Journal Title

NPJ Urban Sustain

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

2661-8001
2661-8001

Volume Title

Publisher

Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Sponsorship
National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China) (52008005)