Repository logo

The Delta Study - Prevalence and characteristics of mood disorders in 924 individuals with low mood: Results of the of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).

Published version



Change log


Martin-Key, Nayra A  ORCID logo
Barton-Owen, Giles 
Han, Sung Yeon Sarah 
Cooper, Jason D 


OBJECTIVES: The Delta Study was undertaken to improve the diagnosis of mood disorders in individuals presenting with low mood. The current study aimed to estimate the prevalence and explore the characteristics of mood disorders in participants of the Delta Study, and discuss their implications for clinical practice. METHODS: Individuals with low mood (Patients Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥5) and either no previous mood disorder diagnosis (baseline low mood group, n = 429), a recent (≤5 years) clinical diagnosis of MDD (baseline MDD group, n = 441) or a previous clinical diagnosis of BD (established BD group, n = 54), were recruited online. Self-reported demographic and clinical data were collected through an extensive online mental health questionnaire and mood disorder diagnoses were determined with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS: The prevalence of BD and MDD in the baseline low mood group was 24% and 36%, respectively. The prevalence of BD among individuals with a recent diagnosis of MDD was 31%. Participants with BD in both baseline low mood and baseline MDD groups were characterized by a younger age at onset of the first low mood episode, more severe depressive symptoms and lower wellbeing, relative to the MDD or low mood groups. Approximately half the individuals with BD diagnosed as MDD (49%) had experienced (hypo)manic symptoms prior to being diagnosed with MDD. CONCLUSIONS: The current results confirm high under- and misdiagnosis rates of mood disorders in individuals presenting with low mood, potentially leading to worsening of symptoms and decreased well-being, and indicate the need for improved mental health triage in primary care.



bipolar disorder, diagnostic errors, major depressive disorder, mood disorders, prevalence, Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Depressive Disorder, Major, Humans, Mood Disorders, Prevalence, World Health Organization

Journal Title

Brain Behav

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title