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Tuberculosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and the Association With Transient Hyperglycemia in Periurban South Africa

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Kubjane, Mmamapudi 
Berkowitz, Natacha 
Goliath, Rene 
Levitt, Naomi S 
Wilkinson, Robert J 


jats:titleAbstract</jats:title> jats:sec jats:titleBackground</jats:title> jats:pDiabetes mellitus (DM) increases tuberculosis (TB) risk. We assessed the prevalence of hyperglycemia (DM and impaired glucose regulation [IGR]) in persons with TB and the association between hyperglycemia and TB at enrollment and 3 months after TB treatment in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.</jats:p> </jats:sec> jats:sec jats:titleMethods</jats:title> jats:pAdults presenting at a Cape Town TB clinic were enrolled. TB cases were defined by South African guidelines, while non-TB participants were those who presented with respiratory symptoms, negative TB tests, and resolution of symptoms 3 months later without TB treatment. HIV status was ascertained through medical records or HIV testing. All participants were screened for DM using glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose at TB treatment and after 3 months. The association between TB and DM was assessed.</jats:p> </jats:sec> jats:sec jats:titleResults</jats:title> jats:pOverall DM prevalence was 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1%–15.4%) at enrollment and 9.3% (95% CI, 6.4%–13%) at follow-up; IGR prevalence was 46.9% (95% CI, 42.2%–51.8%) and 21.5% (95% CI, 16.9%–26.3%) at enrollment and follow-up. TB/DM association was significant at enrollment (odds ratio [OR], 2.41 [95% CI, 1.3–4.3]) and follow-up (OR, 3.3 [95% CI, 1.5–7.3]), whereas TB/IGR association was only positive at enrollment (OR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.6–3.3]). The TB/DM association was significant at enrollment in both new and preexisting DM, but only persisted at follow-up in preexisting DM in patients with HIV-1 infection.</jats:p> </jats:sec> jats:sec jats:titleConclusions</jats:title> jats:pOur study demonstrated high prevalence of transient hyperglycemia and a significant TB/DM and TB/IGR association at enrollment in newly diagnosed DM, but persistent hyperglycemia and TB/DM association in patients with HIV-1 infection and preexisting DM, despite TB therapy.</jats:p> </jats:sec>



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Clinical Infectious Diseases

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Oxford University Press (OUP)
This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant numbers 084323, 104873, and 203135), a Carnegie Corporation Postdoctoral Fellowship, and a Harry Crossley Senior Clinical Fellowship. R. J. W. is supported by the Francis Crick Institute, which receives funding from Cancer Research UK (grant number FC001010218), Research Councils UK (grant number FC0010218), and the Wellcome Trust (grant number FC0010218). He also receives support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (grant number U1 AI115940), NIH (grant number WILK116PTB), and European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (grant number SRIA 2015–1065). M. K. is supported by the South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS, and the NIH (grant number U01AI069924).