Who uses what food retailers? A cluster analysis of food retail usage in the Netherlands.

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Hoenink, Jody C 
Eisink, Milou 
Adams, Jean 
Pinho, Maria GM 
Mackenbach, Joreintje D 

The aim of this study is to describe how individuals use different food retailers and how food retail usage varies according to socio-demographic and diet-related characteristics. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch adults (N = 1784) was used. Results from the Two-step cluster analysis indicated that there were five clusters of food retail users. Use of discount supermarkets, organic supermarkets, fast-food outlets, and restaurants contributed to clustering, but use of regular supermarkets, local food shops and whether food retailers were close to home or further from home did not. The clusters included mixed food outlet users, discount supermarket and restaurant users, fast-food and restaurant users, predominant discount supermarket users and supermarkets, fast-food and restaurant users. Participants in each cluster had their own characteristics especially in terms of socio-economic position and diet quality. Future studies need to consider further how food retail selection links physical exposure to the food environment and diet.

Dietary behaviors, Exposure to food outlets, Food environment, Food supply, Residential environment, Adult, Humans, Cluster Analysis, Commerce, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diet, Fast Foods, Food Supply, Marketing, Netherlands, Residence Characteristics, Restaurants
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Health Place
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Elsevier BV
MRC (MC_UU_00006/7)
The ‘Eet & Leef’ study, and the work of JDM, is funded by an NWO VENI grant on “Making the healthy choice easier – role of the local food environment” (grant number 451-17-032). During the start of the manuscript, JCH and JDM were further funded by the Netherlands Heart Foundation (Hartstichting) and the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) through the Supreme Nudge (CVON2016–04) project. JCH and JA are currently supported by the Medical Research Council [Unit Programme number MC_UU_00006/7]. The funders played no role in the design of the study, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, or the writing of the manuscript. For the purpose of Open Access, the authors have applied a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising.