Inhibition of Thiamine Diphosphate-Dependent Enzymes by Triazole-Based Thiamine Analogues.
Thiamine is metabolized into the coenzyme thiamine diphosphate (ThDP). Interrupting thiamine utilization leads to disease states. Oxythiamine, a thiamine analogue, is metabolized into oxythiamine diphosphate (OxThDP), which inhibits ThDP-dependent enzymes. Oxythiamine has been used to validate thiamine utilization as an anti-malarial drug target. However, high oxythiamine doses are needed in vivo because of its rapid clearance, and its potency decreases dramatically with thiamine levels. We report herein cell-permeable thiamine analogues possessing a triazole ring and a hydroxamate tail replacing the thiazolium ring and diphosphate groups of ThDP. We characterize their broad-spectrum competitive inhibition of ThDP-dependent enzymes and of Plasmodium falciparum proliferation. We demonstrate how the cellular thiamine-utilization pathway can be probed by using our compounds and oxythiamine in parallel.