Prevalence and incidence of genital warts and cervical Human Papillomavirus infections in Nigerian women
Dareng, Eileen O
Adebamowo, Sally N
Odutola, Michael K
Background Genital warts are important causes of morbidity and their prevalence and incidence can be used to evaluate the impact of HPV vaccination in a population. Methods We enrolled 1020 women in a prospective cohort study in Nigeria and followed them for a mean (SD) of 9 (4) months. Nurses conducted pelvic examinations and collected ectocervical samples for HPV testing. We used exact logistic regression models to identify risk factors for genital warts. Results The mean age of study participants was 38 years, 56% (535/962) were HIV-negative and 44% (427/962) were HIV-positive. Prevalence of genital warts at enrolment was 1% (4/535) among HIV-negative women, and 5% (23/427) among HIV-positive women. Of 614 women (307 HIV negative and 307 HIV positive women) for whom we could compute genital wart incidence, it was 515 (95% CI:13–2872) per 100,000 person-years in HIV-negative and 1370 (95% CI:283–4033) per 100,000 person-years in HIV-positive women. HIV was associated with higher risk of prevalent genital warts (OR:7.14, 95% CI:2.41–28.7, p < 0.001) while higher number of sex partners in the past year was associated with increased risk of incident genital warts (OR:2.86, 95% CI:1.04–6.47. p = 0.04). HPV11 was the only HPV associated with prevalent genital warts in this population (OR:8.21, 95% CI:2.47–27.3, p = 0.001). Conclusion Genital warts are common in Nigeria and our results provide important parameters for monitoring the impact of future HPV vaccination programs in the country. HIV infection and number of sexual partners in past year were important risk factors for prevalent and incident genital warts respectively.