Impact of Sociodemographic, Premorbid, and Injury-Related Factors on Patient-Reported Outcome Trajectories after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. To better understand its impact on various outcome domains, this study pursues the following: (1) longitudinal outcome assessments at three, six, and twelve months post-injury; (2) an evaluation of sociodemographic, premorbid, and injury-related factors, and functional recovery contributing to worsening or improving outcomes after TBI. Using patient-reported outcome measures, recuperation trends after TBI were identified by applying Multivariate Latent Class Mixed Models (MLCMM). Instruments were grouped into TBI-specific and generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL; QOLIBRI-OS, SF-12v2), and psychological and post-concussion symptoms (GAD-7, PHQ-9, PCL-5, RPQ). Multinomial logistic regressions were carried out to identify contributing factors. For both outcome sets, the four-class solution provided the best match between goodness of fit indices and meaningful clinical interpretability. Both models revealed similar trajectory classes: stable good health status (HRQoL: n = 1944; symptoms: n = 1963), persistent health impairments (HRQoL: n = 442; symptoms: n = 179), improving health status (HRQoL: n = 83; symptoms: n = 243), and deteriorating health status (HRQoL: n = 86; symptoms: n = 170). Compared to individuals with stable good health status, the other groups were more likely to have a lower functional recovery status at three months after TBI (i.e., the GOSE), psychological problems, and a lower educational attainment. Outcome trajectories after TBI show clearly distinguishable patterns which are reproducible across different measures. Individuals characterized by persistent health impairments and deterioration require special attention and long-term clinical monitoring and therapy.
Peer reviewed: True
Funder: Hannelore Kohl Stiftung
Funder: Integra LifeSciences Corporation
Funder: NeuroTrauma Sciences