Impact of Sociodemographic, Premorbid, and Injury-Related Factors on Patient-Reported Outcome Trajectories after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).

Change log
von Steinbuechel, Nicole 
Hahm, Stefanie 
Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos  ORCID logo

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. To better understand its impact on various outcome domains, this study pursues the following: (1) longitudinal outcome assessments at three, six, and twelve months post-injury; (2) an evaluation of sociodemographic, premorbid, and injury-related factors, and functional recovery contributing to worsening or improving outcomes after TBI. Using patient-reported outcome measures, recuperation trends after TBI were identified by applying Multivariate Latent Class Mixed Models (MLCMM). Instruments were grouped into TBI-specific and generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL; QOLIBRI-OS, SF-12v2), and psychological and post-concussion symptoms (GAD-7, PHQ-9, PCL-5, RPQ). Multinomial logistic regressions were carried out to identify contributing factors. For both outcome sets, the four-class solution provided the best match between goodness of fit indices and meaningful clinical interpretability. Both models revealed similar trajectory classes: stable good health status (HRQoL: n = 1944; symptoms: n = 1963), persistent health impairments (HRQoL: n = 442; symptoms: n = 179), improving health status (HRQoL: n = 83; symptoms: n = 243), and deteriorating health status (HRQoL: n = 86; symptoms: n = 170). Compared to individuals with stable good health status, the other groups were more likely to have a lower functional recovery status at three months after TBI (i.e., the GOSE), psychological problems, and a lower educational attainment. Outcome trajectories after TBI show clearly distinguishable patterns which are reproducible across different measures. Individuals characterized by persistent health impairments and deterioration require special attention and long-term clinical monitoring and therapy.


Peer reviewed: True

Funder: Hannelore Kohl Stiftung

Funder: OneMind

Funder: Integra LifeSciences Corporation

Funder: NeuroTrauma Sciences

Multivariate Latent Class Mixed Models (MLCMM), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), long-term outcomes, mental health, recuperation trajectories, traumatic brain injury
Journal Title
J Clin Med
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
European Union 7th Framework programme (602150)