Systematic review of the barriers and facilitators to dietary modification in people living with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes from South Asian ethnic populations.
AIMS: Lifestyle and dietary modification are effective in the prevention and management of Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). However, South Asian (SA) populations living in Western countries have low adherence rates to healthcare advice and experience poor diabetes control and clinical outcomes compared with the general population. This systematic review aimed to summarise the barriers and facilitators of dietary modification within people from South Asian (SA) ethnicity with T2DM or pre-diabetes. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus generated 3739 articles, of which seven were included. Qualitative and quantitative data were inputted utilising COVIDENCE. Qualitative data were analysed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: Thematic analysis identified three facilitators: (1) cultural sensitivity, (2) health education and (3) support networks. Barriers include (1) healthcare inequity, (2) cultural insensitivity, (3) social pressures, (4) misconceptions and (5) time constraints. Good access to health care and motivation were the most common facilitators discussed. Misconceptions on T2DM management and cultural insensitivity contributed to the majority of barriers discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally tailored interventions could improve adherence to diet modification in people with T2DM from SA ethnicity. Interventions involving the application of social media to challenge intergenerational stigmas and misinformation, distributing culturally appropriate resources and providing diets tailored to the SA palate could help.