Common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume alteration in major depression and bipolar disorder: evidence from voxel-based meta-analysis.

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Wise, T 
Radua, J 
Via, E 
Cardoner, N 

Finding robust brain substrates of mood disorders is an important target for research. The degree to which major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with common and/or distinct patterns of volumetric changes is nevertheless unclear. Furthermore, the extant literature is heterogeneous with respect to the nature of these changes. We report a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in MDD and BD. We identified studies published up to January 2015 that compared grey matter in MDD (50 data sets including 4101 individuals) and BD (36 data sets including 2407 individuals) using whole-brain VBM. We used statistical maps from the studies included where available and reported peak coordinates otherwise. Group comparisons and conjunction analyses identified regions in which the disorders showed common and distinct patterns of volumetric alteration. Both disorders were associated with lower grey-matter volume relative to healthy individuals in a number of areas. Conjunction analysis showed smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula. Group comparisons indicated that findings of smaller grey-matter volumes relative to controls in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus, along with cerebellar, temporal and parietal regions were more substantial in major depression. These results suggest that MDD and BD are characterised by both common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume changes. This combination of differences and similarities has the potential to inform the development of diagnostic biomarkers for these conditions.

Adult, Bipolar Disorder, Brain, Case-Control Studies, Depressive Disorder, Major, Female, Gray Matter, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Neuroimaging, Prefrontal Cortex
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Mol Psychiatry
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
TW, AJC, AHY receive and DA has received funding support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Mental Health Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, or the Department of Health. DA is supported by the Academy of Medical Sciences (reference AMS-SGCL8). ACN is funded through the National Institutes of Health. MJK is funded by an MRC CDA Fellowship (MR/J008915/1). MJvT was supported by a VENI grant (NWO grant number 016.156.077). MLP is funded by NIH grants R01MH1000, 1 P50 MH106435, R01 MH073953, R01 MH060952. FA has received funding from the Trinity College School of Medicine. JR received grant support from Instituto de Salud Carlos III - Subdirección General de Evaluación and the European Regional Development Fund (personal grant Miguel Servet CP14/00041 and project PI14/00292 integrated into the National Plan for research, development and innovation).