A State-of-the-Art Review of Intra-Operative Imaging Modalities Used to Quality Assure Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.
Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is the preferred method for elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. However, the success of this technique depends greatly on the technologies available. Intra-operative imaging is essential but can come with limitations. More complex interventions lead to longer operating times, fluoroscopy times, and greater contrast doses. A number of intra-operative imaging modalities to quality assure the success of EVAR have been developed. A systematic literature search was performed with separate searches conducted for each imaging modality in the study: computed tomography (CT), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), fusion, ultrasound, intra-operative positioning system (IOPS), and non-contrast imaging. CT was effective at detecting complications but commonly resulted in increased radiation and contrast dose. The effectiveness of DSA can be increased, and radiation exposure reduced, through the use of adjunctive technologies. We found that 2D-3D fusion was non-inferior to 3D-3D and led to reduced radiation and contrast dose. Non-contrast imaging occasionally led to higher doses of radiation. Ultrasound was particularly effective in the detection of type II endoleaks with reduced radiation and contrast use but was often operator dependent. Unfortunately, no papers made it past full text screening for IOPS. All of the imaging techniques discussed have advantages and disadvantages, and clinical context is relevant to guide imaging choice. Fusion and ultrasound in particular show promise for the future.
Peer reviewed: True