100 years post-insulin: immunotherapy as the next frontier in type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterised by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, the incidence of T1D is increasing globally. The discovery of insulin 100 years ago dramatically changed the outlook for people with T1D, preventing this from being a fatal condition. As we celebrate the centenary of this milestone, therapeutic options for T1D are once more at a turning point. Years of effort directed at developing immunotherapies are finally starting to pay off, with signs of progress in new onset and even preventative settings. Here, we review a selection of immunotherapies that have shown promise in preserving β cell function and highlight future considerations for immunotherapy in the T1D setting.
Wellcome Trust (220772/Z/20/Z)
Diabetes UK (20/0006172)