Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.


Type
Article
Change log
Authors
Baxter, Joseph S 
Johnson, Nichola 
Tomczyk, Katarzyna 
Gillespie, Andrea 
Maguire, Sarah 
Abstract

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10-31).

Description
Keywords
breast cancer risk, functional annotation, risk locus, Breast Neoplasms, CRISPR-Cas Systems, Cell Line, Chromosome Mapping, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2, Female, Genetic Association Studies, Genetic Variation, Humans, Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5, Molecular Sequence Annotation, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Risk Factors, Sequence Deletion
Journal Title
Am J Hum Genet
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
0002-9297
1537-6605
Volume Title
108
Publisher
Elsevier BV
Sponsorship
Cancer Research Uk (None)
Wellcome Trust (203477/Z/16/Z)