Internet of Hybrid Energy Harvesting Things

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© 2017 IEEE. Internet of Things (IoT) is a perfect candidate to realize efficient observation and management for Smart City concept. This requires deployment of large number of wireless devices. However, replenishing batteries of thousands, maybe millions of devices may be hard or even impossible. In order to solve this problem, Internet of Energy Harvesting Things (IoEHT) is proposed. Although the first studies on IoEHT focused on energy harvesting (EH) as an auxiliary power provisioning method, now completely battery-free and self-sufficient systems are envisioned. Taking advantage of diverse sources that the concept of Smart City offers helps us to fully appreciate the capacity of EH. In this way, we address the primary shortcomings of IoEHT; availability, unreliability, and insufficiency by the Internet of Hybrid EH Things (IoHEHT). In this paper, we survey the various EH opportunities, propose an hybrid EH system, and discuss energy and data management issues for battery-free operation. We mathematically prove advantages of hybrid EH compared to single source harvesting as well. We also point out to hardware requirements and present the open research directions for different network layers specific to IoHEHT for Smart City concept.

Hybrid energy harvesting (EH), Internet of Things (IoT), Smart Cities, wireless networks
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IEEE Internet of Things Journal
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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)