Fcα Receptor-1-Activated Monocytes Promote B Lymphocyte Migration and IgA Isotype Switching.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) produce enhanced immunoglobulin A (IgA) against the microbiota compared to healthy individuals, which has been correlated with disease severity. Since IgA complexes can potently activate myeloid cells via the IgA receptor FcαRI (CD89), excessive IgA production may contribute to IBD pathology. However, the cellular mechanisms that contribute to dysregulated IgA production in IBD are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that intestinal FcαRI-expressing myeloid cells (i.e., monocytes and neutrophils) are in close contact with B lymphocytes in the lamina propria of IBD patients. Furthermore, stimulation of FcαRI-on monocytes triggered production of cytokines and chemokines that regulate B-cell differentiation and migration, including interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-10 (IL10), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), and chemokine ligand-20 (CCL20). In vitro, these cytokines promoted IgA isotype switching in human B cells. Moreover, when naïve B lymphocytes were cultured in vitro in the presence of FcαRI-stimulated monocytes, enhanced IgA isotype switching was observed compared to B cells that were cultured with non-stimulated monocytes. Taken together, FcαRI-activated monocytes produced a cocktail of cytokines, as well as chemokines, that stimulated IgA switching in B cells, and close contact between B cells and myeloid cells was observed in the colons of IBD patients. As such, we hypothesize that, in IBD, IgA complexes activate myeloid cells, which in turn can result in excessive IgA production, likely contributing to disease pathology. Interrupting this loop may, therefore, represent a novel therapeutic strategy.
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (VICI) (91814650)