Inhibition of snake venom induced sterile inflammation and PLA2 activity by Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles in experimental animals
Abstract: Sterile inflammation (SI) is an essential process in response to snakebite and injury. The venom induced pathophysiological response to sterile inflammation results into many harmful and deleterious effects that ultimately leads to death. The available treatment for snakebite is antiserum which does not provide enough protection against venom-induced pathophysiological changes like haemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develop hypersensitive reactions. In order to overcome these hindrances, scientists around the globe are searching for an alternative therapy to provide better treatment to the snake envenomation patients. In the present study TiO2 (Titanium dioxide)-NPs (Nanoparticles) has been assessed for antisnake venom activity and its potential to be used as an antidote. In this study, the synthesis of TiO2-NPs arrays has been demonstrated on p-type Silicon Si < 100 > substrate (∼30 ohm-cm) and the surface topography has been detected by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The TiO2-NPs successfully neutralized the Daboia russelii venom (DRV) and Naja kaouthia venom (NKV)-induced lethal activity. Viper venom induced haemorrhagic, coagulant and anticoagulant activities were effectively neutralized both in in-vitro and in vivo studies. The cobra and viper venoms-induced sterile inflammatory molecules (IL-6, HMGB1, HSP70, HSP90, S100B and vWF) were effectively neutralised by the TiO2-NPs in experimental animals.