Understanding HCMV Latency Using Unbiased Proteomic Analyses
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes either a latent (non-productive) or lytic (productive) infection depending upon cell type, cytokine milieu and the differentiation status of the infected cell. Undifferentiated cells, such as precursor cells of the myeloid lineage, support a latent infection whereas terminally differentiated cells, such as monocytes or dendritic cells are an environment conducive to reactivation and support a lytic infection. The mechanisms which regulate HCMV in either a latent or lytic infection have been the focus of intense investigation with a view to developing novel treatments for HCMV-associated disease which can have a heavy clinical burden after reactivation or primary infection in, especially, the immune compromised. To this end, a number of studies have been carried out in an unbiased manner to address global changes occurring within the latently infected cell to address the molecular changes associated with HCMV latency. In this review, we will concentrate on the proteomic analyses which have been carried out in undifferentiated myeloid cells which either stably express specific viral latency associated genes in isolation or on cells which have been latently infected with virus.