Organoids of the female reproductive tract.
Healthy functioning of the female reproductive tract (FRT) depends on balanced and dynamic regulation by hormones during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and childbirth. The mucosal epithelial lining of different regions of the FRT-ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and vagina-facilitates the selective transport of gametes and successful transfer of the zygote to the uterus where it implants and pregnancy takes place. It also prevents pathogen entry. Recent developments in three-dimensional (3D) organoid systems from the FRT now provide crucial experimental models that recapitulate the cellular heterogeneity and physiological, anatomical and functional properties of the organ in vitro. In this review, we summarise the state of the art on organoids generated from different regions of the FRT. We discuss the potential applications of these powerful in vitro models to study normal physiology, fertility, infections, diseases, drug discovery and personalised medicine.
Funder: Centre for Trophoblast Research