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The Yorkshire Kidney Screening Trial (YKST): protocol for a feasibility study of adding non-contrast abdominal CT scanning to screen for kidney cancer and other abdominal pathology within a trial of community-based CT screening for lung cancer

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Usher-Smith, Juliet A  ORCID logo
Godoy, Angela 
Burge, Sarah W 
Burbidge, Simon 
Cartledge, Jon 


jats:secjats:titleIntroduction</jats:title>jats:pKidney cancer (renal cell cancer (RCC)) is the seventh most common cancer in the UK. As RCC is largely curable if detected at an early stage and most patients have no symptoms, there is international interest in evaluating a screening programme for RCC. The Yorkshire Kidney Screening Trial (YKST) will assess the feasibility of adding non-contrast abdominal CT scanning to screen for RCC and other abdominal pathology within the Yorkshire Lung Screening Trial (YLST), a randomised trial of community-based CT screening for lung cancer.</jats:p></jats:sec>jats:secjats:titleMethods and analysis</jats:title>jats:pIn YLST, ever-smokers aged 55–80 years registered with a general practice in Leeds have been randomised to a Lung Health Check assessment, including a thoracic low-dose CT (LDCT) for those at high risk of lung cancer, or routine care. YLST participants randomised to the Lung Health Check arm who attend for the second round of screening at 2 years without a history of RCC or abdominal CT scan within the previous 6 months will be invited to take part in YKST. We anticipate inviting 4700 participants. Those who consent will have an abdominal CT immediately following their YLST thoracic LDCT. A subset of participants and the healthcare workers involved will be invited to take part in a qualitative interview. Primary objectives are to quantify the uptake of the abdominal CT, assess the acceptability of the combined screening approach and pilot the majority of procedures for a subsequent randomised controlled trial of RCC screening within lung cancer screening.</jats:p></jats:sec>jats:secjats:titleEthics and dissemination</jats:title>jats:pYKST was approved by the North West-Preston Research Ethics Committee (21/NW/0021), and the Health Research Authority on 3 February 2021. Trial results will be disseminated at clinical meetings, in peer-reviewed journals and to policy-makers. Findings will be made available to participants via the study website (<jats:ext-link xmlns:xlink="" ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href=""></jats:ext-link>).</jats:p></jats:sec>jats:secjats:titleTrial registration numbers</jats:title>jats:p<jats:ext-link xmlns:xlink="" ext-link-type="clintrialgov" xlink:href="NCT05005195">NCT05005195</jats:ext-link> and <jats:ext-link xmlns:xlink="" ext-link-type="isrctn" xlink:href="ISRCTN18055040">ISRCTN18055040</jats:ext-link>.</jats:p></jats:sec>


Peer reviewed: True

Acknowledgements: The authors thank the patient and public representations who have contributed to this study, Phil Alsop and Philip Dondi. They also thank the YLST study team and members of the YKST IDMC (Paul Nathan (Chair), Vicky Goh, Damian Hanbury and Akhtar Nasim) and TSC (Peter Sasieni (Chair), Jonathan Mant, David Nicol, Robert Rintoul, Katie Robb and Jo Waller).


Urology, 1506, 1738, kidney tumours, urological tumours, computed tomography

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BMJ Open

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Kidney Cancer UK (N/A)
Cancer Research UK (C9685/A25177)
National Institute for Health Research (BRC-1215-20014 and IS-BRC-1215-20007)
Yorkshire Cancer Research (L403C)
The Mark Foundation for Cancer Research, the Cancer Research UK (N/A)