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Measuring the Air Quality Using Low-Cost Air Sensors in a Parking Garage at University of Minnesota, USA.

Published version
Peer-reviewed

Type

Article

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Authors

Swanson, Jacob 
Kittelson, David 

Abstract

The concentration of air pollutants in underground parking garages has been found to be higher compared to ambient air. Vehicle emissions from cold starts are the main sources of air pollution in underground parking garages. Eight days of measurements, using low-cost air sensors, were conducted at one underground parking garage at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. The CO, NO, NO2, and PM2.5 daily average concentrations in the parking garage were measured to be higher, by up to more than an order of magnitude, compared to the ambient concentration. There is positive correlation between exit traffic flow and the air concentrations in the parking garage for lung deposited surface area (LDSA), CO2, NO, and CO. Fuel specific emission factors were calculated for CO, NO, and NOx. Ranging from 25 to 28 g/kgfuel for CO, from 1.3 to 1.7 g/kgfuel for NO, and from 2.1 to 2.7 g/kgfuel for NOx. Regulated emissions were also calculated for CO and NOx with values of 2.4 to 2.9 and 0.19 to 0.25 g/mile, respectively. These emissions are about 50% higher than the 2017 U.S. emission standards for CO and nearly an order magnitude higher for NOx.

Description

Keywords

air pollutants, air pollution, fuel emissions, gases, low-cost sensors, particles, underground parking garage, United States, Air Pollution, Vehicle Emissions, Air Pollutants

Journal Title

Int J Environ Res Public Health

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

1661-7827
1660-4601

Volume Title

19

Publisher

MDPI AG