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Ethical use of animal models in musculoskeletal research.

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Allen, Matthew J 
Hankenson, Kurt D 
Goodrich, Laurie 
Boivin, Gregory P 
von Rechenberg, Brigitte 


The use of animals in research is under increasing scrutiny from the general public, funding agencies, and regulatory authorities. Our ability to continue to perform in-vivo studies in laboratory animals will be critically determined by how researchers respond to this new reality. This Perspectives article summarizes recent and ongoing initiatives within ORS and allied organizations to ensure that musculoskeletal research is performed to the highest ethical standards. It goes on to present an overview of the practical application of the 3Rs (reduction, refinement, and replacement) into experimental design and execution, and discusses recent guidance with regard to improvements in the way in which animal data are reported in publications. The overarching goal of this review is to challenge the status quo, to highlight the absolute interdependence between animal welfare and rigorous science, and to provide practical recommendations and resources to allow clinicians and scientists to optimize the ways in which they undertake preclinical studies involving animals. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:740-751, 2017.



3Rs, best practices, ethics, in vivo, preclinical, Animal Welfare, Animals, Animals, Laboratory, Disease Models, Animal, Humans, Musculoskeletal System, Orthopedics, Pain, Research Design, Stress, Psychological, Translational Research, Biomedical

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J Orthop Res

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