Active pulmonary tuberculosis: something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue.


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Authors
Wetscherek, Maria TA  ORCID logo  https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2924-7587
Sadler, Timothy J 
Lee, Janice YJ 
Karia, Sumit 
Babar, Judith 
Abstract

Tuberculosis remains a major global health issue affecting all countries and age groups. Radiology plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This review aims to improve understanding and diagnostic value of imaging in PTB. We present the old, well-established findings ranging from primary TB to the common appearances of post-primary TB, including dissemination with tree-in-bud nodularity, haematogenous dissemination with miliary nodules and lymphatic dissemination. We discuss new concepts in active PTB with special focus on imaging findings in immunocompromised individuals. We illustrate PTB appearances borrowed from other diseases in which the signs were initially described: the reversed halo sign, the galaxy sign and the cluster sign. There are several radiological signs that have been shown to correlate with positive or negative sputum smears, and radiologists should be aware of these signs as they play an important role in guiding the need for isolation and empirical anti-tuberculous therapy.

Description
Keywords
Educational Review, Pulmonary tuberculosis, X-ray, Computed tomography, Imaging, Immunocompromised
Journal Title
Insights Imaging
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
1869-4101
1869-4101
Volume Title
13
Publisher
Springer Science and Business Media LLC