The sexual health, orientation, and activity of autistic adolescents and adults.


Type
Article
Change log
Abstract

Small studies suggest significant differences between autistic and nonautistic individuals regarding sexual orientation and behavior. We administered an anonymized, online survey to n = 2386 adults (n = 1183 autistic) aged 16-90 years to describe sexual activity, risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and sexual orientation. Autistic individuals are less likely to report sexually activity or heterosexuality compared to nonautistic individuals, but more likely to self-report asexuality or an 'other' sexuality. Overall, autistic, and nonautistic groups did not differ in age of sexual activity onset or contraction of STIs. When evaluating sex differences, autistic males are uniquely more likely to be bisexual (compared to nonautistic males); conversely, autistic females are uniquely more likely to be homosexual (compared to nonautistic females). Thus, both autistic males and females may express a wider range of sexual orientations in different sex-specific patterns than general population peers. When comparing autistic males and females directly, females are more likely to have diverse sexual orientations (except for homosexuality) and engage in sexual activity, are less likely to identify as heterosexual, and have a lower mean age at which they first begin engaging in sexual activity. This is the largest study of sexual orientation of autistic adults. Sexual education and sexual health screenings of all children, adolescents, and adults (including autistic individuals) must remain priorities; healthcare professionals should use language that affirms a diversity of sexual orientations and supports autistic individuals who may have increased risks (affecting mental health, physical health, and healthcare quality) due to stress and discrimination from this intersectionality. LAY SUMMARY: This is the largest study on the sexual activity, orientation, and health of autistic adults. This study reaffirms that the majority of autistic adults are interested in sexual relationships and engage in sexual activity. Sexual education and sexual health screenings must remain a priority for all individuals, including those with autism; healthcare professionals should be aware that autistic patients may be more likely to identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer, Asexual, and other identities not listed here (LGBTQA+) which may put them at greater risk of mental and physical health difficulties due to discrimination.

Description
Keywords
adolescents, adults, sexual activity, sexual health, sexual orientation, Adolescent, Adult, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Autistic Disorder, Bisexuality, Child, Female, Heterosexuality, Humans, Male, Sexual Behavior, Sexual Health
Journal Title
Autism Res
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
1939-3792
1939-3806
Volume Title
Publisher
Wiley
Sponsorship
Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT) (Unknown)
Rosetrees Trust (A2209 JS15/ M853)
Wellcome Trust (102199/Z/13/Z)
Wellcome Trust (214322/Z/18/Z)
Funding for this project was generously provided by the Autism Research Trust (Grant Number: RG72423), the Rosetrees Trust (Grant Number: G102199), and the Cambridge and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (Grant Number: G102307). EW is supported by funding from the Corbin Charitable Trust. SBC received funding from the Wellcome Trust 214322\Z\18\Z. For the purpose of Open Access, the author has applied a CC BY public copyright licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising from this submission. Further to this SBC received funding from Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 777394. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and EFPIA and AUTISM SPEAKS, Autistica, SFARI. SBC and CA also received funding from the Autism Research Trust, Autistica, the MRC and the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. The research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care East of England at Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, NIHR or Department of Health and Social Care.