Reaching the Excitonic Limit in 2D Janus Monolayers by In Situ Deterministic Growth.
Named after the two-faced Roman god of transitions, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) Janus monolayers have two different chalcogen surfaces, inherently breaking the out-of-plane mirror symmetry. The broken mirror symmetry and the resulting potential gradient lead to the emergence of quantum properties such as the Rashba effect and the formation of dipolar excitons. Experimental access to these quantum properties, however, hinges on the ability to produce high-quality 2D Janus monolayers. Here, these results introduce a holistic 2D Janus synthesis technique that allows real-time monitoring of the growth process. This prototype chamber integrates in situ spectroscopy, offering fundamental insights into the structural evolution and growth kinetics, that allow the evaluation and optimization of the quality of Janus monolayers. The versatility of this method is demonstrated by synthesizing and monitoring the conversion of SWSe, SNbSe, and SMoSe Janus monolayers. Deterministic conversion and real-time data collection further aid in conversion of exfoliated TMDs to Janus monolayers and unparalleled exciton linewidth values are reached, compared to the current best standard. The results offer an insight into the process kinetics and aid in the development of new Janus monolayers with high optical quality, which is much needed to access their exotic properties.