A Network Model of Resilience Factors for Adolescents with and without Exposure to Childhood Adversity.

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Fritz, J 
Goodyer, IM 
Wilkinson, PO 

Resilience factors (RFs) help prevent mental health problems after childhood adversity (CA). RFs are known to be related, but it is currently unknown how their interrelations facilitate mental health. Here, we used network analysis to examine the interrelations between ten RFs in 14-year-old adolescents exposed ('CA'; n = 638) and not exposed to CA ('no-CA'; n = 501). We found that the degree to which RFs are assumed to enhance each other is higher in the no-CA compared to the CA group. Upon correction for general distress levels, the global RF connectivity also differed between the two groups. More specifically, in the no-CA network almost all RFs were positively interrelated and thus may enhance each other, whereas in the CA network some RFs were negatively interrelated and thus may hamper each other. Moreover, the CA group showed more direct connections between the RFs and current distress. Therefore, CA seems to influence how RFs relate to each other and to current distress, potentially leading to a dysfunctional RF system. Translational research could explore whether intervening on negative RF interrelations so that they turn positive and RFs can enhance each other, may alter 'RF-mental distress' relations, resulting in a lower risk for subsequent mental health problems.

Adolescent, Adverse Childhood Experiences, Child, Female, Humans, Male, Models, Theoretical, Resilience, Psychological, Stress, Psychological
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Wellcome Trust (074296/Z/04/Z)
Medical Research Council (1800905)
EI is funded by an ERC Consolidator Grant (no. 647209). IG is funded by a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award and declares consulting to Lundbeck. ALvH is supported by the Royal Society (DH15017 & RGF\EA\180029 & RFG/RI/180064), and MQ (MQBFC/2). JF is supported by the Medical Research Council Doctoral Training/Sackler Fund and the Pinsent Darwin Fund. Funders of the authors played no role in the study conduction, analysis performance, or the reporting of the study.