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Immune-stem cell crosstalk in the central nervous system: how oligodendrocyte progenitor cells interact with immune cells.

Published version
Peer-reviewed

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Authors

Cabeza-Fernández, Sonia  ORCID logo  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1199-7761
McMurran, Christopher E  ORCID logo  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8710-0930
Gómez-Sánchez, José A  ORCID logo  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6746-1800
de la Fuente, Alerie G  ORCID logo  https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8366-4969

Abstract

The interaction between immune and stem cells has proven essential for homeostasis and regeneration in a wide range of tissues. However, because the central nervous system was long considered an immune-privileged organ, its immune-stem cell axis was not deeply investigated until recently. Research has shown that oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), a highly abundant population of adult brain stem cells, establish bidirectional interactions with the immune system. Here, we provide an overview of the interactions that OPCs have with tissue-resident and recruited immune cells, paying particular attention to the role they play in myelin regeneration and neuroinflammation. We highlight the described role of OPCs as key active players in neuroinflammation, overriding the previous concept that OPCs are mere recipients of immune signals. Understanding the mechanisms behind this bidirectional interaction holds great potential for the development of novel therapeutic approaches limiting neuroinflammation and promoting myelin repair. A better understanding of the central nervous system's immune-stem cell axis will also be key for tackling two important features shared across neurodegenerative diseases, neuroinflammation and myelin loss.

Description

Funder: Department of Economy Northern Ireland


Funder: Wellcome; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100010269


Funder: Generalitat Valenciana; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003359

Keywords

Immunomodulation, OPCs, T cells, macrophages, microglia, remyelination, Humans, Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells, Oligodendroglia, Neuroinflammatory Diseases, Central Nervous System, Stem Cells, Cell Differentiation

Journal Title

Immunol Cell Biol

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

0818-9641
1440-1711

Volume Title

Publisher

Wiley
Sponsorship
Conselleria de Educación Generalitat Valenciana (PROMOTEO CIPROM/2021/048))
Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CP21/00032)
Agencia Estatal de Investigación (PID2021‐124465OA‐I00)