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Crustal seismic velocity responds to a magmatic intrusion and seasonal loading in Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone.

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Seismic noise interferometry is an exciting technique for studying volcanoes, providing a continuous measurement of seismic velocity changes (dv/v), which are sensitive to magmatic processes that affect the surrounding crust. However, understanding the exact mechanisms causing changes in dv/v is often difficult. We present dv/v measurements over 10 years in central Iceland, measured using single-station cross-component correlation functions from 51 instruments across a range of frequency bands. We observe a linear correlation between changes in dv/v and volumetric strain at stations in regions of both compression and dilatation associated with the 2014 Bárðarbunga-Holuhraun dike intrusion. Furthermore, a clear seasonal cycle in dv/v is modeled as resulting from elastic and poroelastic responses to changing snow thickness, atmospheric pressure, and groundwater level. This study comprehensively explains variations in dv/v arising from diverse crustal stresses and highlights the importance of deformation modeling when interpreting dv/v, with implications for volcano and environmental monitoring worldwide.



37 Earth Sciences, 3705 Geology, 3706 Geophysics

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Sci Adv

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American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
NERC (1634377)
NERC (NE/L002507/1)
European Commission (308377)
Natural Environment Research Council (NE/F011407/1)
Natural Environment Research Council (NE/H025006/1)
Natural Environment Research Council (NE/M017427/1)
Seismometers were borrowed from the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) SEIS-UK [loans 968 and 1022], with funding by research grants from the NERC and the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme [grant 885 308377, Project FUTUREVOLC], and graduate studentships from the NERC (NE/L002507/1).