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The impact of gluten-free diet on growth, metabolic control and quality of life in youth with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease: A systematic review.

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Mozzillo, Enza 
Franceschi, Roberto 
Di Candia, Francesca 
Rosanio, Francesco Maria 
Leonardi, Letizia 


AIMS: To evaluate the impact of gluten free diet (GFD) on growth, metabolic control and quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD). METHODS: A systematic search was performed including studies published in the last 15 years. PICOS framework was used in the selection process and evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. RESULTS: Overall, studies comparing youth with T1D + CD on GFD to those with T1D only, showed no significant differences in growth parameters, HbA1c, number of episodes of hypoglycemia, total daily insulin doses. Studies assessing the effect of GFD introduction showed stable BMI and HbA1c. Only two studies assessed QoL of life, which was not different between T1D + CD vs T1D only youth, as well as pre- and post-CD diagnosis and introduction of GFD. CONCLUSION: This systematic review, including only studies of moderate-high evidence quality level and reporting data on objectively assessed adherence to GFD, highlights that adherence to GFD in youth with T1D + CD leads to regular growth, stable BMI, without any negative effect on HbA1c and insulin requirements. Although assessed in few studies, lipid profile and QoL improved with the introduction of GFD.



Gluten free diet, Growth, Metabolic control, QoL, Type 1 diabetes, Adolescent, Celiac Disease, Child, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Diet, Gluten-Free, Glycated Hemoglobin, Humans, Insulin, Insulin, Regular, Human, Lipids, Patient Compliance, Quality of Life

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Diabetes Res Clin Pract

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Elsevier BV