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Exploring the barriers to and facilitators of implementing CanRisk in primary care: a qualitative thematic framework analysis.

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Donoso, Francisca Stutzin  ORCID logo
Carver, Tim 
Yue, Adelaide 
Cunningham, Alex P 


BACKGROUND: The CanRisk tool enables the collection of risk factor information and calculation of estimated future breast cancer risks based on the multifactorial Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) model. Despite BOADICEA being recommended in National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines and CanRisk being freely available for use, the CanRisk tool has not yet been widely implemented in primary care. AIM: To explore the barriers to and facilitators of the implementation of the CanRisk tool in primary care. DESIGN AND SETTING: A multi-methods study was conducted with primary care practitioners (PCPs) in the East of England. METHOD: Participants used the CanRisk tool to complete two vignette-based case studies; semi-structured interviews gained feedback about the tool; and questionnaires collected demographic details and information about the structural characteristics of the practices. RESULTS: Sixteen PCPs (eight GPs and eight nurses) completed the study. The main barriers to implementation included: time needed to complete the tool; competing priorities; IT infrastructure; and PCPs' lack of confidence and knowledge to use the tool. Main facilitators included: easy navigation of the tool; its potential clinical impact; and the increasing availability of and expectation to use risk prediction tools. CONCLUSION: There is now a greater understanding of the barriers and facilitators that exist when using CanRisk in primary care. The study has highlighted that future implementation activities should focus on reducing the time needed to complete a CanRisk calculation, integrating the CanRisk tool into existing IT infrastructure, and identifying appropriate contexts in which to conduct a CanRisk calculation. PCPs may also benefit from information about cancer risk assessment and CanRisk-specific training.



breast cancer, general practice physicians, implementation, multifactorial risk prediction, primary health care, Humans, Female, Breast Neoplasms, Risk Factors, Primary Health Care, England, Case-Control Studies, Qualitative Research

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Br J Gen Pract

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Royal College of General Practitioners
European Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Societal Challenges (634935)
European Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Societal Challenges (633784)
Cancer Research UK (20861)
Wellcome Trust (203477/B/16/Z)
National Institute for Health and Care Research (IS-BRC-1215-20014)

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