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Combined 23 Na and 13 C imaging at 3.0 Tesla using a single-tuned large FOV birdcage coil.

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Lanz, Titus 
Schulte, Rolf F 


PURPOSE: An unmet need in carbon-13 (13 C)-MRI is a transmit system that provides uniform excitation across a large FOV and can accommodate patients of wide-ranging body habitus. Due to the small difference between the resonant frequencies, sodium-23 (23 Na) coil developments can inform 13 C coil design while being simpler to assess due to the higher naturally abundant 23 Na signal. Here we present a removable 23 Na birdcage, which also allows operation as a 13 C abdominal coil. METHODS: We demonstrate a quadrature-driven 4-rung 23 Na birdcage coil of 50 cm in length for both 23 Na and 13 C abdominal imaging. The coil transmit efficiencies and B1+ maps were compared to a linearly driven 13 C Helmholtz-based (clamshell) coil. SNR was investigated with 23 Na and 13 C data using an 8-channel 13 C receive array within the 23 Na birdcage. RESULTS: The 23 Na birdcage longitudinal FOV was > 40 cm, whereas the 13 C clamshell was < 32 cm. The transmit efficiency of the birdcage at the 23 Na frequency was 0.65 µT/sqrt(W), similar to the clamshell for 13 C. However, the coefficient of variation of 23 Na- B1+ was 16%, nearly half that with the 13 C clamshell. The 8-channel 13 C receive array combined with the 23 Na birdcage coil generated a greater than twofold increase in 23 Na-SNR from the central abdomen compared with the birdcage alone. DISCUSSION: This 23 Na birdcage coil has a larger FOV and improved B1+ uniformity when compared to the widely used clamshell coil design while also providing similar transmit efficiency. The coil has the potential to be used for both 23 Na and 13 C imaging.



RF coils, body imaging, carbon-13 MRI, multinuclear imaging, sodium-23 MRI, Abdomen, Equipment Design, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Phantoms, Imaging, Sodium

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Magn Reson Med

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Cancer Research Uk (None)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/K503757/1)
Royal Society (IE150411)
Cancer Research UK (C12912/A27150)
Cancer Research UK (C19212/A29082)
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NF-SI-0515-10067)
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
Cancer Research UK (via University of York) (R2010902)
Cancer Research UK (C96/A25177)
National Institute for Health and Care Research (IS-BRC-1215-20014)
This work has been supported by funding from Cancer Research UK (CRUK; C19212/A16628, C19212/A27150), the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme (Grant Agreement no. 76121), the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Addenbrooke’s Charitable Trust, the CRUK Cambridge Centre (C9685/A25177), GlaxoSmithKline, the CRUK & Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC) Cancer Imaging Centre in Cambridge and Manchester (C197/A16465), the Mark Foundation for Cancer Research, The Evelyn Trust, CRUK National Cancer Imaging Translational Accelerator (NCITA; C42780/A27066), and Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the funders.