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COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance in the Context of the Health Belief Model: Comparative Cross-Sectional Study in Punjab, Pakistan.

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Zakar, Rubeena 
Shahzad, Sara 
Hayee, Mahwish 


One of the models that could be used to understand the adoption of vaccine uptake is the Health Belief Model (HBM). The aim of this study is to assess the role of HBM constructs and Perceived Health Status (PHS) on the vaccination status of individuals and to understand the role of socio-demographic variables on HBM scoring. A comparative cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among 1325 vaccinated (60.0%) and non-vaccinated (40.0%) individuals aged 40 years and above in July 2021 in Punjab province, Pakistan. A higher level of education was the strongest predictor of positive HBM. All constructs of HBM, PHS and cues-to-action were significant predictors of COVID-19 vaccination uptake, with perceived benefits as the strongest predictor. In order to expand the vaccination coverage, double-pronged interventions utilizing both information and communication technology and human resources should be designed that address each barrier perceived by individuals and understandably communicate the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination to the broader population.


Peer reviewed: True


Article, corona, SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, mass media, cues-to-action, health status

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Int J Environ Res Public Health

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UKAID from the UK government (OPK00345)